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Ethics & the Environment, Volume 12, Number 1, Spring 2007

ABSTRACTS

RAWLSIAN RESOURCES FOR ANIMAL ETHICS
Ruth Abbey, University of Notre Dame, USA

This article considers what contribution the work of John Rawls can make to questions about animal ethics. It argues that there are more normative resources in A Theory of Justice for a concern with animal welfare than some of Rawls's critics acknowledge. However, the move from A Theory of Justice to Political Liberalism sees a depletion of normative resources in Rawlsian thought for addressing animal ethics. The article concludes by endorsing the implication of A Theory of Justice that we look for ways other than rights discourse to respect and protect the well-being of animals.

"AFRICA BEGINS AT THE PYRENEES": MORAL OUTRAGE, HYPOCRISY, AND THE SPANISH BULLFIGHT
Catherine Bailey, Minnesota State University, USA

The long history of criticism directed at bullfighting usually suggests that there is something especially morally noxious about it. I analyze the claims that bullfighting is distinctively immoral, comparing it to more widely accepted practices such as the slaughtering of animals for food. I conclude that, while bullfighting is horrific, the emphasis on it as especially "uncivilized" may serve to disguise the similarities that it has with other practices that also depend on animal suffering. I conclude that, for many, the hypocritical maintenance of a self-image as "civilized," despite great moral crimes committed against animals, seems to be facilitated by a focus on this especially dramatic example of animal cruelty.

AN OTHER FACE OF ETHICS IN LEVINAS
Barbara Jane Davy, Ontario, Canada

The main threads of Emmanuel Levinas' theory of ethics, developed in his philosophical works, Totality and Infinity (1969), and Otherwise than Being or Beyond Essence (1998), instruct that ethics require transcendence of being and nature, which he describes in terms of a transcendence of animality to the human. This apparent devaluation of the nonhuman would seem to preclude the development of Levinasian environmental ethics. However, a deconstructive reading of Levinas recognizes a subtext that interrupts the main thread of his argument running against the inclusion of nonhuman others in ethics. Through a critical reconstructive reading of Levinas, I develop an ethic extraneous to Levinas' transcendent ethics, an ethic outside his Aotherwise than being.

CRITIQUE OF CALLICOTT'S BIOSOCIAL MORAL THEORY
John Hadley, Charles Stuart University, New South Wales, Australia

J. Baird Callicott's claim to have unified environmentalism and animal liberation should be rejected by holists and liberationists. By making relations of intimacy necessary for moral considerability, Callicott excludes from the moral community nonhuman animals unable to engage in intimate relations due to the circumstances of their confinement. By failing to afford moral protection to animals in factory farms and research laboratories, Callicott's biosocial moral theory falls short of meeting a basic moral demand of liberationists. Moreover, were Callicott to include factory farm and research animals inside the moral community by affording them universal or non-communitarian rights, his theory would fall foul of environmentalists who seek to promote ecosystem stability and integrity via therapeutic hunting. If factory farm and research animals can have rights irrespective of their particular circumstances, then so can free-roaming animals from overabundant and exotic species.

THE CARE OF THE SELF AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLITICS: TOWARDS A FOUCAULTIAN ACCOUNT OF DIETARY PRACTICE
Joseph J. Tanke, Boston College, USA

This essay appropriates the understanding of ethics developed by Michel Foucault in his courses at the College de France from 1980 until his death in 1984, with the aim of formulating a progressive environmental politics. As such, it attempts to navigate some of the long-standing divides between the movement for animal rights and environmental ethics proper, finding in the practice of vegetarianism a form of self-relation that is conducive to critical forms of speech and politics. The final phase of Foucault's work is replete with insights into how the care of the self can serve as a resistance to forms of power and political stasis. This paper presents these unpublished materials, allowing for a glimpse of the unknown Foucault, and reinterprets vegetarianism as a form of self-practice that is linked with truth and critical speech.

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